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What are the Pastoral Epistles?

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The Pastoral Epistles are three letters written by the apostle Paul. The Pastoral Epistles are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. All three are letters from an old man at the close of his ministry who is concerned for his successors in the pastorate. As such, the letters concern the things that would be crucial for the young pastors to understand—church organization and discipline, including such matters as the appointment of elders and deacons, the opposition of rebellious members or false teachers, and the maintenance of doctrinal purity.

Titus was written by Paul to encourage Titus, his brother in the faith, whom he had left in Crete to lead the church Paul had established there on one of his missionary journeys (Titus 1:5). Paul wrote 1 Timothy to Timothy to encourage him in his responsibility for overseeing the work of the Ephesian church and possibly the other churches in the province of Asia (1 Timothy 1:3). His second letter to Timothy was written in approximately AD 67, shortly before the apostle Paul was put to death. Imprisoned in Rome, Paul felt lonely and abandoned and recognized that his earthly life was likely coming to an end soon. The book of 2 Timothy is essentially Paul’s “last words.” Paul looked past his own circumstances to express concern for the churches and specifically for Timothy. Paul wanted to use this last opportunity to encourage Timothy, and all other believers, to persevere in faith (2 Timothy 3:14) and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ (2 Timothy 4:2).

As instructional letters to younger pastors, Paul’s Pastoral Epistles are invaluable today. These letters are full of the heartfelt warnings and instructions that characterize Paul’s ministry, revealing his pastor’s heart in caring for the churches he founded. Whether he is speaking of church organization (1 Timothy 3:1–13; Titus 1:1–16), addressing the role of women in ministry (1 Timothy 2:12), revealing Christ as the mediator between God and man (1 Timothy 2:5), encouraging believers to persevere in the faith (2 Timothy 2:14) and to remain firm in sound doctrine (2 Timothy 1:1–2, 13–14), verifying the inspiration of Scripture (2 Timothy 3:16), or warning against false and apostate teachers (2 Timothy 3:1–17), the Pastoral Epistles are the “how-to” manual for pastors in all places and for all time.

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This page last updated: April 21, 2022