Perhaps one of the best-known statements from the writer of Hebrews is that “the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword,” and that the Word of God divides even soul and spirit (Hebrews 4:12, ESV). Many understand that “the Word” refers to the written Word of God—the Bible. This conclusion relies on correlations from two distant-context passages.
Ephesians 6:17 refers to the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God, and Peter explains that we have been born again through the living and enduring Word of God (1 Peter 1:23). Peter quotes from Isaiah 40:6–8, which affirms that the Word of God endures forever, and adds that it is that Word (Greek rhema) that was proclaimed to his audience. In these contexts, “the Word” refers to the Bible. If we apply the same understanding to Hebrews 4:12, we see that what God has revealed is so precise and so accurate as to make the minutest of judgments and to be able to discern where the soul and spirit begin and end. While these correlations are popular, it seems that the Word of God dividing soul and spirit in Hebrews 4:12 is not actually referring to the written Word.
The Word of God is described as living, active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing or dividing soul and spirit, dividing joints and marrow, and able to judge thoughts and intentions of the heart (Hebrews 4:12). While it is certainly plausible that this is referring to the written Word of God, the pronouns in the next verse seem to indicate the written Word is not what the writer is talking about. In the next verse we are told that “there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we must give account” (Hebrews 4:13, NKJV). Twice in 4:13, the noun of 4:12 (word or logos) is renamed using the masculine and not neuter pronoun. The “Word” in this case is a He.
Peter referred to the Greek rhema as enduring forever. Paul referred to the rhema as the sword of the Spirit. But the writer of Hebrews uses an entirely different word: the logos. This is the same word John uses to communicate that Jesus is the Word (John 1:1). It appears, then, that Ephesians 6:17 and 1 Peter 1:23 are talking about the written Word (rhema), while John 1:1 and Hebrews 4:12 are referring to Jesus as the Word of God. If this is an accurate understanding, then Jesus is the One the writer of Hebrews is describing as able to judge thoughts and intentions and can divide soul and spirit. Jesus is the One who created both soul and spirit.
The division between soul and spirit is mentioned in several other contexts (e.g., 1 Samuel 1:15; Job 7:11; Isaiah 26:9; 42:1; Matthew 12:18; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Thessalonians 5:23). However, the division is never defined or explained. Neither does the writer of Hebrews expound; he only asserts that the Word of God can be dividing soul and spirit. We can’t discern that division, but Jesus can. Because we have such an incredible High Priest who knows everything about us and still declares us righteous through His own blood, we ought to pay attention to Him. We ought to draw near to Him, recognizing that grace is found in Him (Hebrews 4:14–16).