The idea that Jesus was intentionally directed by the Spirit of God into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil is a theologically challenging concept. Yet that is precisely what the Gospels indicate: “Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil” (Matthew 4:1; cp. Mark 1:12–13; Luke 4:1–2).
It doesn’t take long in the Christian walk to discover that temptations frequently come. We might wonder, does God deliberately orchestrate such tests, or was the wilderness temptation of Jesus an exclusive experience only for the Son of Man? As we consider these questions, we’ll see that God allows His followers to be tested for a good purpose. Christ’s experience in the wilderness serves as an example for Christian disciples. But as we study the account, an even deeper meaning is revealed. The Spirit led Jesus into the wilderness to be tempted because God wanted His Son and His followers to understand the Lord’s messianic mission clearly—that Christ had not come to earth as Israel’s Conquering King but as her Suffering Servant.
Temptation itself is not a sin. Jesus was “tempted in every way, just as we are—yet he did not sin” (Hebrews. 4:15; see also 2 Corinthians 5:21). The Lord was not tested to see if He would fail. Jesus was led into the wilderness by the Spirit to be tempted to demonstrate how we can resist the temptation to sin, and how, through Christ’s power, we, too, can overcome (Hebrews 2:18).
Many Bible scholars suggest that the specific temptations Jesus faced in the wilderness represent three main categories of all human temptation. The apostle John labeled these as “the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life” (1 John 2:16).
With the first test, Jesus was tempted to depend on His own independent provision of food rather than rely on God. After forty days of fasting, Christ was hungry, so Satan tried to persuade Him to turn desert rocks into bread. But Jesus was determined to do His Father’s will alone (John 4:34; 5:30; Luke 22:42; Hebrews 10:5–7). It was not the Father telling Jesus to transform the rocks, and so our Lord resisted the temptation with the truth of God’s Word (Matthew 4:4). Our Lord’s example shows us that the Word of God is our best defense against Satan’s schemes. At the same time, Jesus affirmed His messianic mission, submissively entrusting Himself to the Father’s plan rather than forcefully paving His own way and meeting His own needs.
The second temptation involved performing a miracle that would show off Christ’s supernatural power and draw attention to Himself. It was the temptation to abuse His power for His own benefit. Again, Jesus voiced God’s Word in response to the temptation (Matthew 4:7). Satan deceptively portrays sin as acceptable and desirable. The solution is to counter his lies with the truth.
In the third test, Jesus was tempted to secure an earthly crown and bypass the suffering and sacrifice He would endure on the cross. Satan offered “all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor” (Matthew 4:8). It was the kingship that Christ was ultimately destined for, minus the suffering. “All this I will give you,” Satan told Jesus, “if you will bow down and worship me” (Matthew 4:9). The tempter repeatedly offers what seems like a better plan or an easy way out. But the liar fled when Jesus stabbed him with “the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God” (Ephesians 6:17), declaring that only the Lord God is to be worshiped and served (Matthew 4:10).
The fact that the Spirit led the Son of Man into the wilderness to be tempted creates an interesting contrast with another event in Scripture. Adam, the first man, was in a lush and fruitful garden when he was tempted. He failed the test, plunging all of humanity into sin and death (see Romans 5:12). In contrast, Jesus, the Second Adam, was tempted in a dry and barren wilderness—our paradise having been lost. Jesus passed the test, thrice over, and it is in Him that the Adamic curse is reversed and we have eternal life. “For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ!” (Romans 5:17).
The backdrop to Jesus being led into the wilderness by the Spirit to be tempted is found in Deuteronomy 8:1–5. Moses remembered how the Lord God led the people of Israel in the wilderness for forty years “to humble and test you in order to know what was in your heart, whether or not you would keep his commands. He humbled you, causing you to hunger and then feeding you with manna, which neither you nor your ancestors had known, to teach you that man does not live on bread alone but on every word that comes from the mouth of the Lord.”
It’s important to understand that God does not tempt anyone to sin (James 1:13). But He does allow us to be tested and evaluated (Hebrews 11:17–19; 2 Corinthians 13:5; James 1:12; Psalm 17:3; 139:23; Malachi 3:3). God tested our Savior’s character through adversity in the wilderness, and He applies the same initiative in our lives today. Through trials and temptations, we grow in faith and understanding of our mission as servants of His kingdom (Deuteronomy 13:3; 2 Chronicles 32:31; James 1:3; 1 Peter 1:6–7). Through every test, we develop spiritual muscle memory, helping us to depend on Him and His Word to overcome life’s difficulties and challenges.